Film Analysis Of The Natural – Part One: The Use Of Timeline

The Natural is a 1984 film based on the novel by the same name by Bernard Malamud, which was published in 1952. It was directed by Barry Levison and the screenplay was written by Roger Towne and Phil Dusenberry. It’s the story of fictional baseball great, Roy Hobbs (Robert Redford).

The Story

When he’s sixteen he gets a tryout with the Chicago Cubs. The train stops at a carnival and Hobbs strikes out a Babe Ruthish baseball star simply known as The Whammer (Joe Don Baker). A woman on the train named Harriet Bird (Barbara Hershey) met Hobbs, and later in Chicago she invites Hobbs to her room. She shoots him and then jumps out of the window.

Fifteen years later Hobbs signs a major league contract with the New York Knights, a fictional team. The manager and part owner, Pop Fisher (Wilfred Brimley) refuses to play Hobbs. In time he becomes the starting Right Fielder and plays quite well. The team is inspired to play well. Hobs dates Fisher’s niece, Memo Paris (Kim Basenger), and she ends up being bad luck because Hobbs goes into a hitting slump.

At a game in Chicago, Hobbs’s old girlfriend from his teenage years, Iris Gaines (Glen Close). When he sees her in the stands, he hits a homerun that shatters the scoreboard clock. Hobbs wants to help Pop win a pennant because if he does, then contractually Pop can buy out his partner, a man simply known as the Judge (Robert Prosky). Hobbs gets pressure from the Judge, Meno, and a gambler named Gus Sands (Darren McGavin) to not play, but Hobbs overcomes all, including his health problems from the bullet in the stomach, and wins the pennant for Pop Fisher.

The Timeline

The original 1984 release told the story in a straight-forward linear means, just like the novel. But on the 30th anniversary DVD, Levison re-edited the beginning. The first act is Hobbs on the Train to New York to play for the Knights. On the train, everything from his youth up to his getting shot is shown as a flashbacks, as if Hobbs were reminiscing about his first chance at the Big League, which ended tragically.

Having seen both, I prefer to the original linear storyline. It’s almost as if Levison edited the beginning knowing people were already familiar with the 1984 release. It was as if Levison made the changes for people who already knew the story. If the non-linear/flashback version were the original release, it would not have made as much sense, and I feel that The Natural would not be the cinematic treasure that it is.

The flashback version skips quickly over Hobbs’s past. This edition focuses on his days with the Knights, but his early days are still important to the story. To me, this edition weakens the character development of Hobbs, but also Iris Gaines. Still, the re-edition I still basically true to the Malamud novel, which I highly recommend. And it is the cream of the crop for baseball movies.

Movieclips. (October 25, 2012). The Natural (1/8) Movie CLIP – Striking Out The Whammer (1984) HD [Video file]. Retrieved from

 Crackle. (January 21, 2010).The Natural. Roy Hobbs smashes the clock tower at Wrigley Field. Mammoth home run [Video file]. Retrieved from

 Crackle. (June 15, 2011). The Natural – The Final Homerun [Video file]. Retrieved from


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How To Become A NaNoWriMo “Winner”


NaNoWriMo is here! That month of suffering for your art and straining for an image is now upon us. It is not for the squeamish. Nothing but the stout-hearted and solid-bottomed will do. The calluses on our finger tips are our flesh-colored badge of courage.

To see it through you need to be properly equipped. So for all of my fellow NaNoers I have compiled a simple assemblage of items for your literary knapsack, a compositional first aid kit, if you will, to help you through the next month.

  • Write-Ins – Sometimes these are all social, slices of pizza beside ourlaptops. But I remember last year, I got some real work done at my write-ins. You feel less crazy seeing others as crazy as you.
  • Forums – The NaNo website has a great page of forums. It’s a great place to find information and encouragement. When I need a break from writing, I usually hit the forums.
  • Pep Talks – When you sign up for NaNoWriMo you get emails from various writers encouraging you to keep it up. These are called Pep Talks. They’re great and they really work.
  • Coffee – I’m not joking. You cannot succeed at NaNoWriMo without writing very early and/or very late, scratch the “or.” Coffee is wonderful just because it’s coffee, but it’s almost a tonic for the NaNoer. And a bit of advice: coffee, yes – alcohol, no.
  • Muscle Rub – Again, I’m not joking. You are going to get sore muscles writing as much as you will. I’m sore just from writing this article. Nothing wrong with a good rub, and it smells good, too!
  • Comfortable Work Space – Last year I had piles of stuff on my desk, so I put my laptop on my office chair and wheeled it up to my recliner. Not advised. Maybe that’s why I needed all that muscle rub last year, but writing at desk at the right height in a solid yet comfy chair makes a big difference.
  • A Good Book – Writers are readers, and that doesn’t change just because there are now more demands no our schedule. I’m going to continuereading what I was already reading, which is The Bear by William Faulkner and Edmund Blake’s A Philosophical Enquiry Ito The Sublime And Beautiful.
  • Time Management – You have a life outside of NaNo, even though it may not seem like it. You need to learn to make and keep a schedule. Not only will this help you get your writing done, but it will let you get everything else done you need to do.
  • Rest – Enough of this staying up late and getting up early. You need to get some sleep. You may happen to sleep less than Aristotle, but your writing will show it. You need to rest your mind. Pillow that brain once in a while!
  • Support – The writing friends you make during NaNoWriMo can provide great support. I mean more than helping you find a synonym for truculent or what to do in your scene when the man walks through the door with a gun (the man, not the door). There is a great deal of encouragement to be found by your fellow writers. They don’t have to say or do anything. Just the fact that they are doing it with you helps bucketfuls.

What did I leave out? What gets you through a month of nervous November noveling? Let me know how you survive NaNoWriMo in the Comment section below. Happy NaNoing!


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What The Release Of My Novel Siciliana Reminded Me About Creative Writing: Part Three – Incidental Action & Personality


You can have best plot, but if you don’t have interesting people doing all of these interesting things, your plot goes plop. There are a lot of ways to create characters that are unique and individually specific (the key to interesting). One of my favorite means is to give my characters some physically unique feature that ends up being a description of that person. For example, in my novel Prince my antagonist had gout. It symbolized his rigidness and stubbornness. Also, in my soon to be released fifth novel Pietas, my antagonist is short. Throughout the manuscript it demonstrates how underdeveloped he is a person. He is as diminutive in his humanity as he is his stature.


In Siciliana, my protagonist Giuseppe Albanese is double-jointed. He is called Snodatu by his brother-in-law because snodatu is the Sicilian word for double-jointed.” This feature comes in handy in getting himself out of a jam where he can save his life, as well as his brother-in-law.

More importantly, he is constitutionally moral double jointed. This is by far his biggest flaw and gets him into the biggest pickle ever since Smalls hit his step-fathers Babe Ruth baseball over the fence into the beast’s yard (for all of you fans of the move The Sandlot). I demonstrate this indecision throughout the book so it is clearly a trait of his. When hunting pheasant with his brother-in-law, he can hit everything. But when two birds fly out together he doesn’t fire because he couldn’t decide which one to fire upon. Even dining with his uncle Snodatu cannot decide between getting the pork or the chicken. All of this feeds into a character flaw he most overcome to truly be the story’s hero.

Don Sciarpa

Snodatu’s brother-in-law is Paolu Aglieri. He becomes Don of the seaside village of Sciacca. But he sold his soul to the devil for this favor, which he soon finds out is a bad deal. Once the covenant is made, Paolu becomes bald and later he finds out the hard way he is also impotent. He changes his name to Don Sciarpa, which is the Sicilian word for scarf since he ties a scarf around the top of his head to hide his baldness.

While there is nothing wrong with a man naturally losing his hair because of age, having your hair removed from you, typically by shaving, was commonly done to slaves in ancient history. In the Bible, God describes the slavery and bondage of the Jews in Babylonian captivity as the uncovering of their head to their shame. Don Sciarpa is now the devil’s slave, and this is humiliating. To show this, the devil removes his hair, and just as with the old day Jews, it was to his public shame.

Don Sciarpa and his wife find out together that his deal with the devil made him impotent. She leaves him over this. In general, Don Sciarpa is impotent in that he is completely powerless regarding his situation. He is helpless and the remainder of the story for him is his efforts at redemption, in other words, getting out of the contract.

We all know that physical distinctness help make for individualistic characters. But if you give someone a peg leg and someone else an eye patch just for the variety of it, then you missed out on some great character colorization. Unless you write pirate stories, haphazard peg legs and eye patches make people look different, but until they demonstrate how they act differently, you’re missing out on some great character making tools.

Click here to read Part One of this series

Click here to read Part Two of the series

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PRINCE Is Available On Amazon

prince novel

Philip Castile purchases and consumes companies to feed his Conglomerate’s bottom line as well as his tremendous ego. He even buys people, and there are plenty of people who work for him who can be bought. But neither the affection of his son, nor the love of his wife, is for sale.

Through losing Lizzie le Fleur and Roddy Compson, his beloved and his best friend, young Charlie Castile learns to channel his passions in unselfish ways. He is challenged to salvage a small dairy in defiance of his father, and the effort could cost him his life.

Charlie’s struggles are our own. Everyone deals with loss of love. This strife could compel us or consume us. Often this manifests itself in a battle between what we want to do and what we ought to do.


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What The Release Of My Novel Siciliana Reminded Me About Creative Writing: Part Two – Narrative Action & Psychology


Recently releasing my first novel, Siciliana, reminded me of some of the basics of writing. One thing I noticed in this story is the use of narrative action to demonstrate the psychology of the different characters.

One of the best examples I can think of for this in pop culture is the film Good Will Hunting. There is a scene where Will is having a tense discussion with his girlfriend. Just behind them are a pair of old men playing chess. What a wonderful image of what was really going on in the discussion.

A Tale of Two Leaves

Central to Siciliana is the contract between Snodatu and his brother-in-law Don Sciarpa. When the proposition is first ratified, the manuscript reads:

Two ash leaves danced the saltarello across the wooden floorboards. The wind pinned one leaf against the Don’s shoe. That same wind tossed the other leaf over his shoe and into the ankle of Snodatu. He stepped on the leaf, which made no sound as it was ground under his leather sole. He moved his foot and stared down at the ash leaf. A drop of blood plummeted into the canyons and valleys of the broken leaf. Snodatu leaned with his elbows on his knees and examined the blood run chaotically, always seeking lowest ground. The crimson stain became suddenly diluted with the splash of a single tear. The ash leaf scampered on its back before it danced away and off the stoika portiko by the stubborn fall breeze.”

Recall from the last article that the ash tree was thought in medieval times to be the tree from which the cross of Christ was made. So the ash symbolizes spirituality. Each leaf represents one of these two men, although it communicates much more about Snodatu than Don Sciarpa.

The leaf is stepped on and ground by Snodatu. His spirituality is going to be crushed by what he does. Since this event takes place immediately after the deal is sealed (in blood), it demonstrates that it will be Snodatu carrying out his agreement with the Don that will lead to his spiritual ruin. This is emphasized by the drop of blood that falls into the leaf and saturates it. Snodatu’s sin will involve the shedding blood. Also, this tells us that Snodatu will spiritually fall by following through with his deal that he just made with Don Sciarpa.

A Tale Of Two Leaves Redux

The pair of leaves appear again, but at the end of the book. As the first pair of leaves demonstrated spiritual fall that would occur, these last two show the redemption which just took place, both for Snodatu and Don Sciarpa (who in this excerpt is called Paolu Aglieri, which is his family name).

The carriage rested beside a larch tree, which autumn had stripped of all her leaves save two. A pair of unseasonably green and healthy leaves clung to the end of the bottom branch. A sudden gust of wind ripped one leaf away and blew it the same direction that Paolu Aglieri had taken. The second leaf held firm, until a final surge plucked the leaf away. An updraft cast the leaf skyward, and when the wind failed, the leaf drifted down back to the earth, finally resting on the front seat to the carriage immediately beside the reins.”

As the ash was considered for continental Europe, the larch was a sacred tree for ancient Scandinavian cultures. The Word-Tree (or Tree of Life in Christianity) was a larch tree in Nordic literature. So these pair of leaves are meant to compliment the first pair of leaves we just read about.

These leaves are green, even though it’s autumn. This connotes health and life primarily in a spiritual context. Although green, the leaves are blown away by the winds of change. Each of these men following their individual redemption is about to enter the next big transition in their life. One leaf is blown down the trail that the Don had just taken. The other lands in the front seat of a carriage, which Snodatu is about to board and take to meet him family.

These men were self-cursed by their own misdeeds. Both redeemed themselves by correction of life and a new path. As the dead and dying ash trees stood for the fall of these men, these prosperous larch leaves show their reversal of misfortune.

There are several other such references in the book. Some involve cats, cannons, and swords, to name a few. But the point I feel is made well enough to be understood with the reference to the leaves that bookend the story. So whether it’s a leaf or a cat or a chessgame, include incidental action that shows us the person, what will happen to them, or what has just occurred. It’ll add beauty and substance to your story and provide for an entertaining read.

I hope this article encourages you to want to pick up a copy of my novel. You can purchase your copy of Siciliana now on Amazon and Kindle by clicking here. Get yours soon before the introductory price goes up soon. And be sure to Share this with all of your fellow-writers, and Comment in the section below and tell me what you think.

Click here to read Part One of this series

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What The Release Of My Novel Siciliana Reminded Me About Creative Writing: Part One – Scenic Description & Character Development


I began the first draft of my first novel in 2002 and it took my 3 years to finish and longer to edit. I never got it published because I knew nothing of the publishing world and I wanted to learn about it before I tried to getting anything in the market. I learned publishing companies want writers to have a platform, which is one reason I started this Creative Writing blog.


I became aware of self-publishing and soon noticed it as not only a viable option, but a preferred one. So in the past year I had released three non-fiction books (The Gatsby Reader, Think Like A Writer, and My Plans For World Domination) and a novella (Firmament). I’ve written three additional novels, as well. I’ve decided to release these as self-published works as well. Last week I released my first novel, Siciliana.

As I finished polishing it up, I noticed some things I let slip, mostly the use of descriptions and details that may seem incidental but are vital to the story telling. After all, I haven’t read this in years, so it was good to be refreshed on a few things. One of the things I noticed was my use of scenic descriptions to illustrate a certain character.

The Home Of Don Albanese

Siciliana is set in during one week in October of 1909 on the Sicilian coastal town of Sciacca. It has Dons and vendettas, knives and guns, pasta and bread, and what you might imagine may be in a Sicilian novel. The descriptions of buildings, landscapes, and environments is something I usually avoid as superfluous fluff that adds nothing to the story. But a writer can use such descriptions as figures within the novel. For example take a look at the description of Don Albanese’s house:

At a parting in the fence, a sandy trail advanced towards the house. By the entrance stood a bare and barren ash tree. Two prominent branches reached up from the top of the trunk toward Heaven like two arms braced above one’s head. Nothing organic existed within the broken shade of the lifeless tree. Further up the way squatted a short quince tree. A well-dressed snake with an inexplicable knot in her tail lived amongst the branches. The serpent always smiled. Closer to the manse, a ring of pomegranate trees ascended. Countless sparrows flirted from one tree to another, singing amorous tunes in avian languages. A lonely cuckoo larger than the sparrows bounced from tree to tree, helping himself to anything he liked.

About Don Albanese Himself

This paragraph has plenty of details and all of them are symbolic of the man who lives there. Notice what we see in this scene: a dead ash tree, a quince tree, a snake, pomegranate trees, sparrows, and a cuckoo. These details have symbolic meanings that contribute to the development of Don Albanese even before we see him. The ash tree was thought to be three wood used for the cross of Jesus in medieval times. The quince was also then thought to be the forbidden fruit in paradise where the serpent beguiled Eve. Pomegranates were ancient symbols of fertility and sexual potency. Sparrows were birds given to pleasure and cuckoos take whatever they want.

So before we meet Don Albanese, notice what we can know about him. He is a spiritually dead man who gives himself over fully to all of his temptations and vices. He is particularly given to sexual lusts and will even take what he wants (or who he wants) to satisfy his bawdy appetite.

These are the sort of details that a good Creative Writer can provide to tell us about people and circumstances within their novels. You may want to practice these things so that you can develop this technique and use it in your work, just like all of the Masters did in their books, as well.

If you got something useful from this article, Share it with other writers who could also get some good from it. And if you have any Comments, please let me know what’s on your mind.

You can purchase your copy of Siciliana now on Amazon and Kindle by clicking here. Get yours soon before the introductory price goes up soon!


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My Novel Siciliana Is Now Available On Amazon



More than anything else Konstantinu Aglieri wants to become to the Don of the Sicilian coastal village of Sciacca. He succeeds but finds the penalty for ambition is more than he can bear.

Giuseppe Albanese feels torn between protecting his family and defending his family’s honor, even from those who are kin. And when he makes the worst choice he can simply by being selfish, his only remedy is to sacrifice himself.

A greedy heart and a vengeful spirit are loathsome vices, but when they are within the same person, no more of a wretched existence can exist. These two transgressions parasite within the Archebishop Arcollo of Palermo. He learns, but only too late, that a man’s sins will find him out.

Siciliana is a tale of a transformative week in Sicily in October of 1909 where souls are formed and eternities determined.

ISBN-13: 978-1500757335



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Writing Advice From Anton Chekhov: Part Three – Ambiguity


Anton Chekhov is held up as the paragon of Minimalism. To me Minimalism is another way of describing good writing. In fact, I once heard Minimalism called Essentialism. Everything in the text is essential to the text.

To include the unnecessary is therefore bad writing. This is more than in details given in scenery or physical descriptions, it also has to do with subject matter and theme. No one ever called Chekhov an activist writer. Such he would abhor. One of the greatest contributions Chekhov ever made to the realm of Creative Writing was perfecting and demonstrating the craft of Ambiguity. None achieved it better with the possible exception of Shakespeare.

The Unbiased Observer

It seems to me that the writer should not try to solve such ques­tions as those of God, pes­simism, etc. His busi­ness is but to describe those who have been speak­ing or think­ing about God and pes­simism, how and under what cir­cum­stances. The artist should be not the judge of his char­ac­ters and their con­ver­sa­tions, but only an unbi­ased observer.”

Chekhov does not use his prose to take a stand. Instead, he expertly raises questions he never answers. He has enough regard for the reader to handle that task. The manuscript serves to raise the questions of life and bring up the pros and the cons and give the reader something to think about. The reader can take what Chekhov raises and intelligently discuss such important and universal messages with others who have read Chekhov, even with those who have not.

The Proper Problem

You are right in demand­ing that an artist should take an intel­li­gent atti­tude to his work, but you con­fuse two things: solv­ing a prob­lem and stat­ing a prob­lem cor­rectly. It is only the sec­ond that is oblig­a­tory for the artist.”

When we speak of fiction, we are talking about Creative Writing, not Didactic Writing. If someone wants the answers to life, then they should turn to the essays written by philosophers. If they want the tools to hunt for the answers for themselves, let them pick up a volume of Chekhov, whether novel, short story, or play.

Chekhov understands the real secret of story-telling: there is only one story. The one story is what it means to be a human. We are all different, but our problems are the same, or difficulties are similar, and our struggles are universal. Chekhov masterly tells this one story over and over. The variation is merely the differences in plot, but in the end, they tell the same one story. And these variations of the one story perform the same task, asking questions without answering them.

Horse Thievery

You abuse me for objec­tiv­ity, call­ing it indif­fer­ence to good and evil, lack of ideas and ideals, and so on. You would have me, when I describe horse thieves, say: ‘Steal­ing horses is an evil.’ But that has been known for ages with­out my say­ing so. Let the jury judge them; it’s my job sim­ply to show what sort of peo­ple they are. I write: you are deal­ing with horse thieves, so let me tell you that they are not beg­gars but well-fed peo­ple, that they are peo­ple of a spe­cial cult, and that horse steal­ing is not sim­ply theft but pas­sion. Of course it would be pleas­ant to com­bine arrow t with a ser­mon, but for me per­son­ally it is impos­si­ble owing to the con­di­tions of tech­nique. You see, to depict horse thieves in 700 lines I must all the time speak and think in their tone and feel in their spirit. Oth­er­wise, the story will not be as com­pact as all short sto­ries out to be. When I write, I reckon entirely upon the reader to add for him­self the sub­jec­tive ele­ments that are lack­ing in the story.”

The end of this quote reminds me of Hemingway’s concept of story writing. He compared it to an iceberg. The words on the page are the visible part of the iceberg and the rest of the iceberg is the remainder of the story. The unseen part of the iceberg is the majority of the iceberg. So most of the story is actually unwritten by the author.

A great deal of this underwater iceberg portion of the story is the judgments one may make. You may recognize this quote by Chekhov. It is probably the most famous saying of his along with the moonlight quote used in an earlier part of this series. The conclusions are to be drawn by the reader, not the writer. Stated another way, it is not the job of the writer to answer the questions of life, but just ask them, as well as debate them with the use of narrative, dialogue, and all character interaction. It is the reader’s job to come up with the solutions regarding human existence.

Authors are neither preachers nor philosophers. Or, at least if they are elsewise, they do not practice this specialty while in the role of author. Now we all know that writers and readers. Not only that, but reading fuels our writing. In fact, I’m careful to watch what I read as I work on a project knowing it could color my text. My challenge to all the Creative Writers who are reading this is to get a hold of some stories by Chekhov. Try a novel, a short story, and a play for starters. Read one of each and look for this ambiguity. Look for ways you can use this to expert your writing. But don’t sell yourself short. You should also read Chekhov to look for the tools in answering the difficult questions of life. This is why he wrote in the first place. You will be a better person and a better writer.

Please Share this article with other Creative Writers you know. And feel free to make any Comments you wish in the section below.

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Guest Post On The Blogsite Helping Writers Become Authors

On Friday, August 15th, I was honored to have a guest post on K.M. Weiland’s site Helping Writers Become Authors.
Clink on the link to read the article, and while you’re there, look around and enjoy her website –

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Writing Advice From Anton Chekhov: Part Two – Characters


The Hero’s Actions

In the sphere of psy­chol­ogy, details are also the thing. God pre­serve us from common­places. Best of all is to avoid depict­ing the hero’s state of mind; you ought to try to make it clear from the hero’s actions.”

When I first studied writing, one of my professor’s constant criticisms was that I needed to give all of my characters a quirk. That is advice I still offer today, but I didn’t take to it at first because I really didn’t understand it. I recall sitting in his office complaining that he wanted this guy to have an eye patch and that guy to have a false leg and that I didn’t want to write a bunch of pirate stories. It was there I began to learn about making characters as specific and individualistic as possible.

But these physical quirks were nothing if they had nothing to do with the character. The best way to make a character truly unique is by his actions. You find his worldview and his motivation so that you can wind him up and let him play. And if you do this effectively you will never need internal monologue to tell us what the person is thinking. We will know their mindset by their action.

Good Writing

You under­stand it at once when I say, ‘The man sat on the grass.’ You under­stand it because it is clear and makes no demands on the atten­tion. On the other hand it is not eas­ily under­stood if I write, ‘A tall, narrow-chested, middle-sized man, with a red beard, sat on the green grass, already tram­pled by pedes­tri­ans, sat silently, shyly, and timidly looked about him.’ That is not imme­di­ately grasped by the mind, whereas good writ­ing should be grasped at once—in a second.”

So if we need specific details to make characters as unique as possible, then the more details, the greater the specificity of the character, right? Wrong! Too many details muddle the image. Pretty soon you have so many details that you have none.

Not only to superfluous details of a character get in the way of seeing him for who he is, but it obscures whatever action he may engage. From Chekhov’s example just listed above, the point the writer needs to get across is that the man sat on the grass. To go into an array of specifics about the man and the grass get in the way of the fact that the man sat on the grass. Good fiction writing is wrapped up in action, not physical details.

The Writer As Chemist

That the world ‘swarms with male and female scum’ is per­fectly true. Human nature is imper­fect. But to think that the task of lit­er­a­ture is to gather the pure grain from the muck heap is to reject lit­er­a­ture itself. Artis­tic lit­er­a­ture is called so because it depicts life as it really is. Its aim is truth—unconditional and hon­est. A writer is not a con­fec­tioner, not a dealer in cos­met­ics, not an enter­tainer; he is a man bound under com­pul­sion, by the real­iza­tion of his duty and by his con­science. To a chemist, noth­ing on earth is unclean. A writer must be as objec­tive as a chemist.”

I lost the desire to make any character likable or unlikable quite a long time ago. When I learned to grey my characters, make neither white or back heroes and villains, I dropped the need to force them to be a certain way. Our good guy’s flatulence never smells like treacle just like our bad guy’s suffering can make us shed a tear.

So Chekhov’s notion of the writer as a chemist is a clear description of what our attitude towards our own characters should be. In the end it is not so much hero versus villain, good guy against bad guy, but protagonist and antagonist. These protagonists might do some vile things and these antagonists may seem perfectly justifiable. They are antagonists only that that they oppose the protagonist in getting what he wants.

Character development is one of the most difficult aspects of story writing simply because it is so involved. I will spend months plotting and outlining a novel before I begin a first draft, and most of that time is working on the uniqueness of my characters. Let’s face it, the most amazing of stories turns into a snooze fest if the actions of this tale are performed by flat characters. Chekhov’s advice helps me, and I hope I does you some good, as well.

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